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6 Techniques of Scientific Management

Scientific management is an important concept in management, which benefits large corporations to achieve difficult tasks. When done completely, these techniques of Scientific Management have the opportunity of bringing humongous changes in terms of growth.

In this article, you are going to discover the Techniques of Scientific Management as proposed in various studies and researches

6 Techniques of Scientific Management

What do you mean by Scientific Management? 

In simple words, scientific management is the art of knowing exactly 'what is to be done including 'how this is will be done. Under this method, the scientific techniques are used in the recruitment, at the time of selection, and in practice, the workers and are also done in tackling different industrial difficulties. Also, we will grasp the man behind these techniques in our next section and will be introduced to his scientific techniques.


FW TAYLOR

FW. Taylor's way towards management is termed scientific management. for this contribution to the growth of management thoughts, he is called "Father of scientific management

Taylor's management theory is based on scientific analyses. This theory includes the application of a scientific approach to decision-making and resolving them at the same time. According to Taylor, Difficulties should be settled by scientific techniques rather than the rule of thumb and a test and error method.

"Knowing what you want men to do and seeing that they do it in the most reliable and the most affordable way”. —F.W. Taylor. 


Techniques of Scientific Management 

Major techniques of  scientific management are as follows:

  1. Work-Study 
  2. Standardization of Tools and Equipment
  3. Scientific task Setting
  4. Scientific selection and training
  5. Functional Organization
  6. Differential piece-rate Wage Plan 
We will discuss all seven techniques of scientific Management in detail


1. Work-Study 

Before selecting the work for the available workforce, proper and decent work-study should be done by management. Work-study means an organized based study. This objectifies, projects, the performance of many operations in a force. All about, this technique analyzes the whole system.

These methods are also utilized in the study of human work in all its contexts and begin systematically to the inspection of all the parts. This is based on the techniques such as motion study, time study, method study, and fatigue study. 


A) Time study:

Time study is the technique of inspecting and recording the time taken by an employee to accomplish a given task. 


B) Method study:

Method study helps decrease the wastage of time and raw material and increase the utility of all sources as per predefined objectives. It is beneficial in discovering the techniques for managing the raw materials, transportation, inspection, storage, etc.  


C) Motion Study:

Motion study assists in improving the performance of the employees. The motion method is practiced to know whether some elements of a job can be reduced. 


D) Fatigue study:

The study of fatigue and steps to decrease the level of fatigue is very necessary to maintain the operational effectiveness of the employees. 


2. Standardization of tools and equipment

With the result of experiments administered at the workplace. Taylor promoted the standardization of tools and equipment.

The standardization method helps to decrease the deterioration and wastage of materials, develop the quality of work, and whereby to reduce the price of production. This technique is also useful and powerful for increasing fatigue among workers.

3. Scientific Task Setting

Taylor indicated the need for fixing a fair day's work. Scientific work setting is essential to prevent the employees from doing work much below their range. By using this method, employees will complete the task according to standards given and management can keep proper control on optimum utilization of the workforce.

4. Scientific Selection and Training 

Management can choose the proper persons for the proper jobs by using scientific selection methods. It needs to fix job specifications- as per need. Employees are chosen according to calculated standards in an unbiased way. After selection, management should give the proper training programs to improve their performance.

5. Functional Organization 

Till now we have seen 5 Techniques of scientific management 6 techniques is functional organization. planning is divided from implementation. That means, planning is performed by several people, and real work is supervised by different people. Thus, every worker will be conducted. He recommended a total of eight supervisors control the many various aspects of production. They are described below.


A) At Planning Level

  1. Route Clerk - tells how workflows from one machine to another.
  2. Instruction clerk - records guidance to complete the work.
  3. Time and cost Clerk - defines the time in which job should be finished and work out the cost.
  4. Discipline - guarantees that the workers are working as per company rules. 

B) AT Implementation Level

  1. Gang boss- truly gets the work done.
  2. Inspector- Ensures that the work is completed as per the particularized standards. 
  3. Repair Boss- Handles security and maintenance of machinery.
  4. Speed Boss- Work is done in a specified time.

According to Taylor, "with the help of proper division of all activities into preparation and implementation; management can definitely achieve the needed performance from the worker."

6. Differential Piece-Rate Wage plan 

Remuneration should be set in such a way that the average worker is motivated to achieve a standard output. Taylor proposed the differential piece-wage system. Higher rates are granted to employees who finish the work more than the standard quantity under this system. On the other hand, if an employee is doing below the standard; he shall be given a cheaper rate of wages. This method motivates the employees to gain higher standard performance and earn wages i.e remuneration at a higher rate.


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References 

12th HSC OC BOOk

Faq on Scientific Management

1. What is the main objective of scientific management?
Answer- The main objective of scientific management is to solve difficulties by scientific techniques rather than the law of thumb and error approach. 

2.  On which techniques work-study is based? 
Answer-  Work study is based on time, motion, method, and fatigue studies.